American Civil War: Battle of Mansfield — Union forces are thwarted by the Confederate army at Mansfield, Louisiana.
The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring direct election of Senators, becomes law.
World War I: Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin sell war bonds on the streets of New York City’s financial district.
Indian Independence Movement: At the Delhi Central Assembly, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throw handouts and bombs to court arrest.
India and Pakistan sign the Liaquat-Nehru Pact.