A person who invests in a company or partnership but does not take part
in administering or directing the organization; he or she just shares
in the profits or losses.
Adjourned without giving any future date of meeting or hearing. A court
that adjourns sine die essentially dismisses the case by saying that
it never wants to hear the case again! A meeting which adjourns sine
die has simply not set a date for it's next meeting.
Intentionally casting aspersion on someone's property including real
property, a business or goods (the latter might also be called "slander
of goods"). A form of jactitation. For example, stating that a
house is haunted or alleging that a certain product infringes a patent
When a person (called "master") has absolute power over another
(called "slave") including life and liberty. The slave has
no freedom of action except within limits set by the master. The slave
is considered to be the property of the master and can be sold, given
away or killed. All the fruits of the slave's labor belongs to the master
(see, for example, the extract from The 1740 South Carolina Slave Code
in the History of the Law). Slavery was once very prevalent in the world
but is now illegal in most countries.
A regular court but which has simplified rules of procedure and process
to deal with claims of a lesser value. Many jurisdictions have established
small claims courts which, because of their structures and reliance
on deformalized proceedings, allow for expedited hearings and where
representation by lawyer is not required or encouraged. Some typical
distinctive characteristics of small claims courts include the ability
to serve by regular mail and to seize both a court and an adversary
at far less cost than in ordinary courts.
A term of the feudal system which referred to the tenure which was exchanged
for certain goods or services which were not military in nature. Socage
is often described as "free and common socage" although the
"free and common" qualification is now of a purely historical
Synonymous with buggery and referring to "unnatural" sex acts,
including copulation, either between two persons of the same sex or
between a person and an animal (the latter act is known as "bestiality").
Most countries outlaw bestiality but homosexual activity is gradually