Certification - 1. Written attestation. 2. Authorized declaration verifying that an instrument is a true and correct copy of the original.
Certiorari - A writ of review issued by a higher court to a lower court. A means of getting an appellate court to review a lower court's decision. If an appellate court grants a writ of certiorari, it agrees to take the appeal. (Sometimes referred to as “granting cert.”)
Challenge - An objection, such as when an attorney objects at a hearing to the seating of a particular person on a civil or criminal jury.
Challenge for cause - A request from a party to a judge that a certain prospective juror not be allowed to be a member of a jury because of specified causes or reasons.
Chambers - A judge's private office. A hearing in chambers takes place in the judge's office outside of the presence of the jury and the public.
Change of venue - Moving a lawsuit or criminal trial to another place for trial.
Character evidence - The testimony of witnesses who know the general character and reputation of a person in the community in which he or she lives. It may be considered by the jury in a dual respect: (1) as substantive evidence upon the theory that a person of good character and reputation is less likely to commit a crime than one who does not have a good character and reputation, and (2) as corroborative evidence in support of a witness's testimony as bearing upon credibility.
Source: Jurist International.