Sattar Head of International Sales, Standard Chartered Bank
What is the meaning of the term 'foreign exchange' ?
A. The term 'foreign exchange' has different meanings.
Often, foreign exchange is used to denote foreign currency. When a bank
buys or sells foreign exchange, it deals in claims on foreign currency.
Thus, foreign exchange may mean foreign currency and claims on foreign
currency. The term foreign exchange also includes: (a) the means and
methods by which the currency of one country is exchanged for that of
another, (b) the causes which make such exchanges necessary, and (c)
the forms in which and the rates at which such exchanges are conducted.
In local banking sector "Foreign Exchange" also means "Foreign
Trade" i.e. import and export business.
Can you explain the term 'Cross Rate' ?
A. The rates of exchange arrived at or quoted by expressing
the quotations for any two currencies in terms of a third.
My company had given me an account payee cheque which unfortunately
I have lost. The amount of the money is quite large. If someone finds
it, is it possible for that person to draw the money?
A. An account payee cheque can only be deposited in
the payee's account, so the chances of it being deposited in any other
account is not there. Despite that, you must immediately advise the
bank of the lost cheque giving details of cheque number date, payee's
name and amount. The bank on receipt of the instruction will immediately
put a 'Stop Payment' on that particular cheque.
Mahfujul Haq Khan BDS, DDS, FSDCE (USA), PhD (Japan), Post
Doc. (Japan) Specialised: Crown and Bridge work, and Periodontal plastic
surgery (USA) Senior Medical Officer, Department of Dentistry, BIRDEM
What is bonding filling in dental practice? How long will it last? what's
the merits and demerits of this kind of bonding filling? Is it costly?
A composite resin or bonding filling is a tooth-coloured plastic mixture
filled with glass (silicon dioxide). Introduced in the 1960s, dental
composites were confined to the front teeth because they were not strong
enough to withstand the pressure and wear generated by the back teeth.
Since then, composites have been significantly improved and can be successfully
placed in the back teeth as well. Composites are not only used for restoring
decay, but are also used for cosmetic improvements of the smile by changing
the color of the teeth or reshaping disfigured teeth.
are the main advantage, since dentists can blend shades to create a
color nearly identical to that of the actual tooth. Composites bond
to the tooth to support the remaining tooth structure, which helps to
prevent breakage and insulate the tooth from excessive temperature changes.
with the higher cost and the extra placement time, the patient can experience
post-operative sensitivity. Also, the shade of the composite can change
slightly if the patient drinks tea, coffee, spicy food or other staining
foods. The dentist can put a clear plastic coating over the composite
to prevent the color from changing if a patient is particularly concerned
about tooth color. Another drawback: composites tend to wear out sooner
than silver fillings in larger cavities, al-though they hold up as well
in small cavities.
Studies have shown
that composites last 7-10 years, which is comparable to silver fillings
except in very large restorations, where silver fillings last much longer
You have mentioned in your early issue that back of tongue is one of
major source of bad breath. Can I smell it myself? How do I know when
I have bad breath? Should I use mouthwash, and what kind of mouthwash
is better? When is the best time to rinse? Can having any of my teeth
pulled be a remedy for bad breath?
In healthy people, the tongue is probably the major source of oral malodor.
You may not believe such a statement, so I suggest the following simple
experiment. Stick out your tongue as far as it will go, and give one
of your wrists (preferably one without perfume) a good lick. Wait five
seconds, and take a sniff. Almost everyone's tongue has an odor.
Some people who
come to me with claim that they can smell their own breath. They do
this in a variety of ways some ingenious. The most common thing to do
is just to cover your mouth and nose with your hands and take a deep
Some people smell their odor on the telephone receiver after a conversation.
Others rub their gums with their finger and smell it. One woman claimed
to be able to smell her own bad breath by covering her head with a blanket.
Most people have
bad breath at one time or another. The best way to find out if your
have it on a regular basis, is to ask someone close to you. Provided
that they love you, and that they have a sense of smell, family members
will find a way of telling you the truth. You can also ask a very close
I use mouthwash, and what kind of mouthwash is better?
Mouthwashes were invented several thousand years ago for breath freshening.
One concoction, suggested in the Jewish Talmud, consists of dough water,
salt and olive oil. Commercial mouthwashes usually contain a concoction
consisting of flavor, alcohol, and antibacterial agent(s). Several types
of mouthwash have been shown to reduce malodor in clinical trials, including
0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinses 1% povidine iodine.
Sprays and regular
mint candies are considered to be relatively ineffective in combating
bad breath. Don't be fooled by the burning sensation - it is your own
cells in pain, not the bacteria.
The best time to
use any mouth rinse appears to be right before bedtime. Since in many
instances, bad breath involves the back of the tongue, it is probably
helpful to gargle the mouth rinse. Some clinicians recommend extending
the tongue while gargling, in order to allow the mouth rinse to reach
having any of my teeth pulled be a remedy for bad breath?
No! I know a woman who, during the 1986 had her teeth pulled by a dentist
in order to cure her from having bad breath. In 2003 she came to me
with the complain of bad breath and I found that she still had bad breath
originating from her tongue. Don't make the same mistake. When you get
your dentures or bridge, make sure to consult your dentist on how best
to take care of them, including how to prevent them from taking on odor.
Dr. Khan’s website “www.aikodental.com” for more information on oral
and dental health.
BY THE WAY
the perfect shoe
How to get the right
shoe is a dilemma for some people. They can't seem to get it right.
Well here are some easy steps for getting the perfect shoe. The best
time to try on shoes is usually at the end of the day, when your feet
are most swollen. However, don't abuse this rule of thumb: if you've
just completed a sightseeing tour which required 10 miles of walking,
and that's not your typical exercise routine, then by all means don't
try on office heels that night. The point of waiting until the end of
the day is to make sure that the footwear can fit you at your widest--
kind of a "worst case scenario" check.
The first shoe you
try on should be for your larger foot. For most people, their larger
foot is the opposite from the hand they write with. For example, if
you're right handed, your left foot might be bigger. Always fit the
pair of shoes to this foot.
Stand up with your
shoes on. Walk around a bit. You should be able to wiggle your toes
in the front of the shoe.
And finally, do not buy shoes that are too tight.
UNDER A DIFFERENT SKY
A few years after
surviving his teens in 1976 my father had married a teenager who was
19 years of age, 5 feet 1 inch, and had features sharper than an average
Bengali girl but a skin tone darker than the average "good-looking"
Bengali woman. The definition of "good-looking" in Bengali
terms that is, "fair and lovely," maybe accompanied with
puffy cheeks and dull features, but definitely with a light skin tone,
a light skin-tone which balances out all negative aesthetic qualities
and associates the word lovely to make our minds bound to believe
fair is lovely and all other below fair are therefore lesser beauties.
dusky beauty felt very much out of place at her new in-laws house
regarding the skin-deep issue. There everyone had the polished-fair-skin-tone,
the women-in-laws of her wore colors to make them glow, yellow, orange
and hot pink, the colors almost forbidden for darker girls, as apparently
colors of such make a dark girl look even darker and therefore dimmer.
bride at 21 became my mother. Secretly disappointing many I wasn't
born with the trademark pale-fair-skin-tone of my father's side of
the family. I was neither dark nor fair, somewhere in the middle I
guess to keep all semi-satisfied.
use to rub a paste of turmeric and orange peels all over my body before
I would take my bath with the hope that I might just get a few tones
lighter. It didn't work…though I did start looking pale by not getting
enough exposure of the sun (I was told over and over again to not
be under direct sunlight as I was already not so fair), God forbid
what if I got sun-burnt and actually got a few shades darker, what
would happen to me then?
During my years
in Bangladesh, at school, at home, and even on television the issue
of fair shades came up over and over again. Fair women trying to be
fairer and dark women trying to be lighter; I don't blame them. Being
fair in our society does carry a certain status the invisible color
codes that we go by is quite a crucial one…
After I shifted to USA, for a while I almost forgot about the complexion
complexes among Bengalis. Just to make up for my sun-deprivation I
soaked myself in sun every chance I got, went to summer camps where
we spent days under the scorching sun, to a point when my skin had
turned red. My mother never protested, being a victim of color-inequality
I guess she wanted me to be out of the shaded boundary, she wanted
me to be liberated…
So I was liberated until again when without knowing I bumped into
the shaded walls of Bengali minds. I think it was another one of those
Bengali gatherings, when a women taking pride at her straight forwardness
told me "Nitu Kalo hoye gecho," basically telling me I have
become darker, she had that smile in one corner of her mouth, the
smile that pities and mocks at the same time, so I gave her some smart
answer like "wow really? Thanks, I really have been trying to
get a bit tan this summer" and quickly moved from the vicinity
thinking living in a country with countless shades of skin tones and
countless racial mixing, how can we still hold on to the "fair
and lovely" values?
have passed since I was born, 40-some-years have passed since my Mother
was born, I know and see that we Bengalis have come far, far enough
to incorporate jeans with kurtas, get shorter trendier hair cuts and
accept facial hairs need to be waxed and finding refuge to do such
beauty regimes at beauty parlors. The same beauty parlors where one
can also get a fair-polish, bleaching one's skin to be of a lighter-tone,
a bleached unhealthy deteriorated skin, what a symbol of beauty…
My Grand mother who lived through most of her life with the bias towards
lighter-skin-tones, (at weddings she would check the brides arms not
her face to see of what shade the bride really was. She knew the face
would be made up with powdery make-up, poor woman!!! Only if she knew
now days the hands and arms are also painted white of brides to give
equality between faces and arms) stood away from her belief on fair
equals beautiful in the later part of her life. Living with my Mother
for teen-some years she realized true beauty doesn't depend on a person's
complexion, she finally saw through the dark skin of my mother and
realized how striking her daughter-in-law's features were.
was born in 1920 something; I forgive her backwardness and biases,
even she overcame these dark mental blocks and shaded hurdles. Sadly
some of us still haven't accomplished what she could; we still have
skin-polishing and bleaching creams gladly in business. The Bengali
media still keeps the fair Bengali face as a front not exposing olive-toned
beauties as a face of the Bengali media, Bengali women still hold
a grudge against the rays of sun touching their brown or pale bodies...
For the sake of all Bengali women demanding our right to soak in sunlight
and seeking the end of complexion complexes and shaded discrimination,
signing off, I the not so fair Bengali girl…