Fighting that Cold
What is a Cold?
Colds are minor infections of the nose and throat caused by several different viruses. A cold may last for about one week, but some colds last longer, especially in children, elderly people, and those in poor health. Adults get an average of two to four colds per year, mostly between September and May. Young children suffer from an average of six to eight colds per year. Colds are highly contagious. They most often spread when droplets of fluid that contain a cold virus are transferred by touch. These droplets may also be inhaled.
Between one and three days after a cold virus enters the body, symptoms start developing, such as:
- runny nose
- weakened senses of taste and smell
- scratchy throat
Infants and young children are more likely than adults and teens to develop a fever. Smokers usually have more severe symptoms than non-smokers.
What Can Be Done if You Catch a Cold?
Over-the-counter medications can provide temporary relief of symptoms and should be used as soon as you feel a cold coming on.
Acetaminophen is less likely to upset your stomach than other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen which are used to relieve aches and pains. However, studies have shown that acetaminophen, aspirin or any other NSAID may worsen asthma and/or peptic ulcers. Aspirin should not be used in children under eighteen years old because it may play a role in causing Reye Syndrome, a rare but severe liver and central nervous system condition. Be sure to discuss all medication choices with your doctor.
Congestion, cough and nasal discharge may be treated with a decongestant, antihistamine or a combination of the two. Certain people such as those with thyroid disease or high blood pressure should not take decongestants -- check with your doctor. There are many over-the-counter cold remedies that contain both of these ingredients.
Remember to follow dosage instructions on all product labels and know what is in the medication you are taking. Many combination products -- both prescription and over-the-counter-contain acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin. It is important to read the ingredients on each product label to avoid accidentally taking too much of these.
There are no antiviral medications available for treating the common cold. Antibiotics are not useful for treating a cold, and should only be taken to treat bacterial complications that arise from it.
What Can You Do to Prevent a Cold?
Colds are extremely difficult to prevent entirely. The following suggestions may help:
Avoid close contact with people who have a cold, especially during the first few days when they are most likely to spread the infection.
Wash your hands after touching someone who has a cold, after touching an object they have touched, and after blowing your own nose. If your child has a cold, wash his or her toys after play.
Keep your fingers away from your nose and your eyes to avoid infecting yourself with cold virus particles that you may have picked up.
Put up a second hand towel in the bathroom for healthy people to use.
Keep an eye on the humidity of your environment so that your sinuses do not dry out.
Do not inflict your cold on others! Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue away and wash your hands. Also, stay away from people who are most vulnerable, including anyone who has asthma or another chronic lung disease, or at least try to limit close contact.
Until recently, it was thought that a single vaccine could not be developed for the different cold viruses. New research approaches may enable the development of a single vaccine for most types of colds.
- Herbs and minerals such as echinacea, eucalyptus, garlic, honey, lemon, menthol, zinc, and vitamin C have gotten a lot of publicity as cold remedies. However, none of these claims are solidly supported by scientific studies.
- Adequate liquid intake is recommended. Eight glasses of water and/or juice per day are recommended. This will help keep the lining of the nose and throat from drying out, so that mucus remains moist and easy to clear from the nose.
- Avoid coffee, tea or cola drinks that contain caffeine. Also avoid any drinks that contain alcohol. Caffeine and alcohol lead to dehydration, the opposite of what you want.
- If you smoke, stop! Stay away from other smokers; inhaling their smoke will further irritate your throat and make you cough even more.
- If you must work or go to school, it won't delay your recovery. But be a good citizen. Use tissues and wash
your hands frequently to reduce the spread of your cold germs to others.
Complications of a Cold
Colds get better within a few days to weeks, whether or not you take medication. However, a cold virus can pave the way for other infections to invade the body, including sinus or ear infections, and bronchitis. A common complication is a sinus infection with a prolonged cough. If you have asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema, your symptoms of those conditions may be worsened for many weeks even after your cold has gone away.
Talk to your doctor if you experience any of the following:
- unusually severe cold symptoms
- high fever
- ear pain
- sinus type headache
- cough that gets worse while other cold symptoms improve, or
- flare-up of any chronic lung problem, such as asthma.
Myths and Facts About the Flu and Colds
Myth: You can catch the flu from a flu shot
Fact: The flu vaccine is made from an inactivated virus, so you cannot get the flu from a flu shot. Some people may be sore at the spot where the vaccination was injected, and in a few cases, may develop a fever, muscle aches, and feel unwell for a day or two. In very rare cases when a person is allergic to the vaccine, there may be an immediate reaction.
Myth: One kind of flu is the "stomach flu."
Fact: About one out of three people with the flu may have an upset stomach, but this is rarely the main symptom of the flu. Other viruses and bacteria, and food poisoning are more common causes of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea.
Myth: There is nothing you can do once you get sick with the flu except stay home in bed.
Fact: Antivirals, when started within 2 days after flu symptoms appear, can reduce the duration of the illness and the severity of symptoms. Symptom relief medications can also help to minimise the discomfort associated with flu symptoms.
Myth: You can catch the flu or a cold from going outdoors in cold weather.
Fact: The flu and colds are more common in the winter months because that is when the viruses spread across the country. It has nothing to do with being outside in cold weather.
Myth: Large doses of Vitamin C can keep you from catching the flu or a cold, or will quickly cure them.
Fact: These claims have not been proven. Still, it is important to one's overall health to consume the minimum daily requirement of Vitamin C.
Myth: "Feed a cold and starve a fever (flu)."
Fact: This is definitely not a good idea in either case. You need more fluids than usual when you have the flu or a cold. Drink plenty of water and juice, eat enough food to satisfy your appetite, and drink hot fluids to ease your cough and sore throat.
Myth: Herbal remedies are an effective treatment for colds.
Fact: Echinacea and other herbs are getting a lot of publicity as cold remedies. Zinc lozenges are also said to cure colds quickly. To date, none of these claims are solidly supported by scientific studies.
Myth: Chicken soup and hot toddies are effective treatments for the flu or colds.
Fact: A bowl of chicken soup is a popular home remedy. While hot liquids can soothe a scratchy throat or cough, chicken soup has no special power to cure the flu or a cold. As for hot toddies, another folk remedy, any beverage containing alcohol should be avoided when you are sick.
Source: American Lung Association, Online
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