The Daily Star

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Tuesday, July 22, 2014


News of: Saturday, 1st of September, 2012

Front Page

Fund crunch holds back 8-lane project

Fund crisis has made uncertain the government project to upgrade the busy Jatrabari-Kanchpur stretch of the Dhaka-Chittagong highway to eight lanes.

Jica extends time by three weeks

Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) yesterday extended its loan effectuation deadline for three weeks for the Padma bridge project, a day after the Asian Development Bank extended its deadline by a month.

Elephants vs people

Kurkuttipara offers a classic case of human-animal conflict.

AL keeps door open for talks

The ruling Awami League would like to have talks with the main opposition BNP on whether to dissolve the parliament ahead of the next parliamentary election.

PM should quit over corruption

BNP acting secretary general Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir yesterday demanded immediate resignation of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, for what he said, widespread corruption in the government.

Nam backs right to nuke energy for all

The Non-Aligned Movement (Nam) summit yesterday ended in Tehran backing the right of Iran and other states to peaceful nuclear energy as the UN upped it's ante against Iran over it's disputed nuclear programme.

BNP ranks want Tarique's lead role in agitation

Some BNP policymakers have urged party Chairperson Khaleda Zia to bring back its Senior Vice Chairman Tarique Rahman from abroad to lead the party in its anti-government movement.

PM for joint venture with Nepal

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina yesterday reiterated Bangladesh's proposal for setting up a hydropower project with Nepal in joint venture.

7.6 quake hits coast of Philippines

A 7.6 earthquake struck off the Philippines coast yesterday, triggering a small tsunami that hit the eastern part of the archipelago, seismologists said.

Buet stalemate takes new turn

The deadlock at Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Buet) appears to deepen further as the students resume demonstration today demanding removal of the vice chancellor and his deputy.

Thousands of foreign students face expulsion

More than 2,000 non-European students, including many Bangladeshis, face deportation risk after the UK government revoked London Metropolitan University's right to sponsor visas of non-European students.

Motorcade of PM's aide attacked

The motorcade of Abdus Sobhan Golap, a special assistant to the prime minister, came under attack at Kalkini upazila of Madaripur yesterday triggering clashes between two groups of the ruling party.

ADB calls for removing rice trade barriers

Asia should cut rice trade barriers and stabilise prices, the Asian Development Bank said Thursday, as concerns grow of a supply crunch similar to one that led to the 2008 global food crisis.

Indian SC asks Sahara group to refund $3b

India's Supreme Court yesterday ordered business conglomerate and leading sports sponsor Sahara to refund more than $3 billion it collected from millions of small savers.

9 forest staff suspended for poaching tiger cubs

Nine forest staff of the Sundarbans west zone have been suspended for their alleged involvement in the poaching of three tiger cubs which were rescued in the capital on June 11.

Woman, daughter murdered

A four-year-old girl along with her mother was found killed at their house in Chapainawabganj on Thursday night.

Singapore minister due today

Singapore's Senior Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Home Affairs Masagos Zulkifli Bin Masagos Mohamad arrives in Dhaka today.

Pakistan extremist leader held in jail

A Pakistan court on Friday remanded the head of a banned extremist group in jail for two weeks after he was arrested on suspicion of inciting sectarian hatred.

Death toll rises to 41

The death toll from a gas explosion at a coal mine in China has risen to 41, making it the worst reported mining accident this year, but one more worker was pulled out alive yesterday, authorities said.

Editorial

High powered expert enquiry needed for Sonali Bank

In what is by far the single largest banking scam in the country involving a nationalised commercial bank (NCB), the Hallmark group managed to get Tk3,500-crore loans. The fact that only 17 midlevel officials have been suspended, where initial reports by the anti-graft body ACC puts it much higher, sends a chill down our collective spines as to where we are headed on the issue. Given the enormity of the scam, we demand a high powered enquiry committee be setup must include relevant experts familiar with banking procedures so that they can identify the loopholes in the system utilised to avail unworthy loans. The enquiry committee will identify the perpetrators, find the systemic flaws that exist in the bank's operations and offer long-term solutions. All this must be done within a specified timeframe and findings published for public scrutiny.

Social safety net funds politicalised?

If the present government can be credited with any new undertaking to alleviate poverty, then the safety net programme constitutes the centrepiece of it. But ever since its initiation, we have noticed some irregularities in the distribution of allocations which is why the benefits of the programme have yet to reach the most vulnerable target groups.

Sports

Mushfiq echoes teammates

The Tigers left Dhaka last night for Trinidad to play their last tournament before the ICC World Twenty20, which will be held in Sri Lanka from September 18.

Fitness concerns on coaches' minds

Country's top booters, split into four groups, have had six days of training till yesterday yet their respective coaches are not happy with the progress they have achieved, especially with their fitness level.

Siddikur misses the cut

Siddikur Rahman slumped to his worst performance of the season when the vaunted golfer failed to make the midway cut in the Omega European Masters at Crans Montana, Switzerland on Friday. The 27-year old golfer, who finished 18th in the same event last year, was no where near his top form as he posted a disappointing 4-over par 146 over the first two rounds, falling short of the cut by four shots. This was the first time in a very consistent season that Siddikur failed to make the cut.

Packed crowds for athletics

A near-capacity crowd at the Olympic Stadium on Friday greeted the first day of athletics at the Paralympics, as the first medals were won in the field events.

Roddick calls time

Andy Roddick celebrated his 30th birthday on Thursday by announcing his retirement as Roger Federer, the great Grand Slam tormentor of the American, eased into the third round at the US Open.

Taylor gives NZ advantage

Ross Taylor put India's attack to the sword with a robust century as New Zealand posted 328-6 at stumps on the opening day of the second and final Test in Bangalore on Friday.

Bangladesh off with flying colours

Bangladesh's bid for qualification for the second round of the Hockey World League got off to a scintillating start as the boys in red and green recorded an emphatic 6-1 win over Hong Kong in the opening match of Round-1 in Singapore yesterday.

Bolt, Blake searing again

Jamaican sprint duo Usain Bolt and Yohan Blake dominated the 100 and 200m at the Diamond League meet here on Thursday, but Kenyan 800m star David Rudisha was upstaged by Ethiopian tyro Mohammed Aman.

Proteas caught in Anderson trap

James Anderson and Jade Dernbach took seven wickets between them as England dismissed South Africa for a seemingly modest 211 in the third one-day international at The Oval on Friday.

Men's team bounce back

Bangladesh men's team bounced back from consecutives defeats by beating lowly Mozabique in their fourth round match of the 40th Chess Olympiad in Istanbul, Turkey yesterday. The men's team, who were placed 107th after the third round, had little trouble getting past their Mozambique opponents in the fourth round. Bangladesh's GMs Ziaur Rahman, Enamul Hossain Razib and Reefat bin Sattar defeated Wilton Inacio Calicoca, Persson Domingos Abrantes, Pedro Ventura Cossa, and Ilidio Alberto Chunguane respectively. The board of Abdullah Al Rakib was was undecided when this report was filed. Bangladesh's first GM Niaz Murshed was rested for this round.

Atletico get kind draw

Europa League winners Atletico Madrid will face Hapoel Tel Aviv, Viktoria Plzen and Portuguese newcomers Academica Coimbra in the group stage of this season's competition following Friday's draw.

Cook to decide KP's fate

New Test captain Alastair Cook along with England team bosses Andy Flower and Hugh Morris will now decide on Kevin Pietersen's fate, as reports appear that there will be no quick return for the disgruntled batsman following Andrew Strauss' retirement.

City seal Scott deal

Premier League champions Manchester City completed their swoop for Swansea winger Scott Sinclair on Friday.

Reds leave it late

Luis Suarez's late goal sent Liverpool into the Europa League group stage as the Reds drew 1-1 with Hearts at Anfield on Thursday to clinch a 2-1 aggregate success.

Dutch drop VDV

The experienced duo of Rafael van der Vaart and Nigel de Jong were dropped from the Netherlands squad on Friday for the World Cup qualifying matches against Turkey and Hungary.

City look for spark

Manchester City manager Roberto Mancini hopes the prospect of reliving the greatest day in the club's history will spark his tired stars into life, while title rivals Manchester United turn to Robin van Persie for inspiration in the absence of Wayne Rooney.

Real seek upturn

Having claimed the season's first piece of silverware with victory over Barcelona in the Spanish Super Cup, Real Madrid return to domestic action needing to close a five-point deficit on the Catalans in La Liga.

Villa back for Spain

Spain's all-time leading scorer David Villa was recalled to the squad by Vicente del Bosque on Friday for their opening 2014 World Cup qualifying matches.

Bastian left out

Germany have left midfielder Bastian Schweinsteiger out of their squad for the World Cup qualifiers against Faroe Islands and Austria next month.

Fergie wary of 'stupid errors'

Manchester United manager Sir Alex Ferguson has told his side to avoid the "stupid errors" that marred last season's Champions League campaign, following Thursday's draw for the group stage.

Metropolitan

A Good Story

Who doesn't love a good story?

11 killed, 52 hurt in road accidents

Eleven people were killed and 52 others injured in separate road accidents in Dhaka, Chuadanga, Gaibandha, Tangail, Chittagong, Jhenidah, Jessore and Dinajpur on Thursday and yesterday.

Children at risk of losing hearing ability

Hydraulic horn is one of the immeasurable mediums of traffic noise as well as sound pollution that cause serious problems, especially in children, said Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Vice-Chancellor Dr Pran Gopal Dutta.

Bishwa Sahitya Kendra awards 583 for reading books

Students need to read creative literary books along with text and academic books for realisation of life, said founder chairman of Bishwa Sahitya Kendra and noted litterateur Prof Abdullah Abu Sayeed yesterday.

WB failure if loan not sanctioned

It would completely be the World Bank's failure if it does not provide the loan for the construction of the Padma bridge, said Awami League Presidium Member Mohiuddin Khan Alamgir at a discussion yesterday.

Experts concerned over rise in natural disasters

Speakers yesterday expressed concern over the increase in frequency of natural disasters, which are the negative impacts of climate change, in the country and urged the government to allocate more climate fund for research.

Man, son killed over land dispute

A father and his son were killed over a land dispute in Mithapukur upazila on Thursday afternoon.

Four die from electrocution

Four people including two boys died from electrocution in Thakurgaon, Habiganj and Bogra on Thursday and yesterday.

Three drown

Three people, including a college student, drowned in ponds and river in separate incidents in Chittagong, Bogra and Dinajpur on Thursday and yesterday.

Drilling of 17th Titas gas well starts

Bangladesh Gas Fields Company Limited (BGFCL) yesterday started drilling the 17th well of Titas gas field in Brahmanbaria.

Party lawmaker slams Mohiuddin

Awami League lawmaker MA Latif yesterday criticised his party colleague and former Chittagong city mayor ABM Mohiuddin Chowdhury for his recent movement against alleged irregularities in the bidding process for appointment of private operators of New Mooring Container Terminal at Chittagong Port.

New shuttle train soon

Communications Minister Obaidul Quader said Bangladesh Railway (BR) would introduce on more shuttle train on Chapainawabganj-Rajshahi route to meet commuters' demand.

BNP's 34th founding anniversary today

Main opposition BNP will celebrate its 34th founding anniversary today.

Lift Hilsa export ban to avoid fish smuggling

Hilsa traders of Barisal division have called for lifting the export ban on Hilsa immediately to avoid smuggling of the fish and causing loss of export market and damages to investors.

Six robbers arrested

Six robbers were held while taking preparation to commit robbery in Chapainawabganj town on Thursday.

Journalist attacked over report

A journalist in Chirirbandar upazila of Dinajpur was attacked on Thursday night allegedly for writing a report on the August 4 attack on Hindu community over building a mosque on a disputed land.

Two special trains for Dhaka-Ctg passengers

A pair of special inter-city trains will run on Dhaka-Chittagong route for one week from today as Dhaka-Chittagong Highway will remain closed for six hours daily during the period for repairs on Meghna and Meghna-Gomti bridges.

Anti-corruption cartoon submission deadline Sep 20

The deadline for submissions in the Seventh Anti-Corruption Cartoon Competition has been extended to September 20.

Fisherman killed by tiger

A fisherman was killed by a Bengal tiger in the west of the Sundarbans on Thursday.

15 pirates held in Ctg

Bangladesh Coast Guard personnel yesterday nabbed 15 pirates from Karnaphuli river in Chittagong in an overnight drive.

One stabbed to death, another shot by criminals

A motorbike driver was stabbed to death while another person was shot by criminals at Char Kalna village in Lohagara upazila of Narail on Thursday.

Death Anniversary

Today is the ninth death anniversary of Nurjahan Murshid, a renowned leader of women renaissance of Bengal and one of the major organisers of the Liberation War.

Obituary

Mohammad Abul Hasnath, superintending engineer of Dhaka South City Corporation, died at United Hospital in the capital yesterday early morning. He was 52.

Mahtab Uddin

Mahtab Uddin Chowdhury, a senior staff reporter of a local Bangla daily the Sonali Sangbad, passed away at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital (RMCH) yesterday afternoon. He was 42.

Death anniversary

Today is the third death anniversary of Moh-ammad Khurshid Alam, former additional secretary and a fiction writer.

International

'Time to turn the page'

Mitt Romney has pledged "to restore the promise of America", as he accepted the Republican presidential nomination at the party's convention in Florida.

US, Israel behind crisis in Syria

The United States and Israel are responsible for the conflict scorching Syria by "flooding weapons" to rebels there, the supreme leader of Iran -- the main ally of Syria's regime -- said yesterday, according to his official website.

China plays down rivalry with US

China denied it was competing with Washington in the Pacific islands Thursday, as US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrived at a regional summit aiming to reassert US influence.

Myanmar removes names from blacklist

Former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi's two sons are among about 2,000 names removed from a blacklist in Myanmar, the president's office revealed Thursday.

UN piles up pressure on Iran

Iran was under diplomatic pressure yesterday after a UN watchdog report said it had expanded its nuclear programme and was hampering inspections, and UN chief Ban Ki-moon in Tehran called on it to release political prisoners.

Cheating at Harvard!

As many as 125 students at Harvard University are being probed for allegedly cheating in a final exam at the elite institution, administrators said Thursday.

Indian politician jailed for life

An Indian court yesterday sentenced a former state minister to a minimum 28 years in jail for her role in instigating the worst massacre during deadly religious riots in Gujarat in 2002.

No 'coup' in Maldives

A Commonwealth-backed investigation in the Maldives on Thursday dismissed claims that a coup forced Mohamed Nasheed from the presidency in February and declared it was a legitimate transfer of power.

Asylum boat drowns off Indonesia coast

Afghans were among the 54 survivors from an asylum-seeker boat that disappeared two days ago off the Indonesian coast, but hopes of finding about 100 more missing were fading fast on Friday.

Thai south rattled by attacks

Militants in Thailand's Muslim-majority south carried out a wave of coordinated attacks yesterday, wounding several soldiers..

Abramovich wins UK court battle

Russian oligarch Boris Berezovsky lost his long-running legal battle with fellow tycoon Roman Abramovich in London's High Court yesterday.

South Africa charges miners with murder

Arrested Lonmin mine workers were on Thursday charged with the murder of 34 striking colleagues who were shot dead by South African police on August 16 during a strike over wages.

Assange 'facing year in embassy'

Julian Assange expects to remain holed up in Ecuador's London embassy for up to a year as the two countries struggle to resolve a diplomatic row over the controversial WikiLeaks founder.

Mexico court rejects bid to scrap vote

Mexico's electoral tribunal unanimously rejected on Thursday a left-wing bid to overturn the July 1 presidential election victory of Enrique Pena Nieto.

DSK's wife confirms separation

Dominique Strauss-Kahn's wife Anne Sinclair indirectly confirmed yesterday that she had separated from the former IMF chief engulfed in an ongoing sex scandal.

Occupy protest plans to block NYSE

Occupy Wall Street will mark its first anniversary this September by attempting to blockade the New York Stock Exchange and trying to arrest bankers, organizers said Thursday.

Indian FM to visit Pakistan

The foreign ministers of Pakistan and India will hold talks in Islamabad next week as the nuclear-armed rivals seek to advance the delicate process of normalising ties.

Huge wildfire rages in Spain

Spanish firefighters were battling a huge wildfire raging near the wealthy resort of Marbella on the country's Costa del Sol yesterday.

Arts & Entertainment

Focus on Architecture

Bangladeshi expatriate painter Iftikhar Uddin Ahmed's solo painting exhibition titled “Searching for New Vision” was recently held at Propeller -- Centre for the Visual Arts in Toronto.

Female directors get recognition for a change

La Mostra del Cinema, the most venerable of international film festivals, and its new head, Alberto Barbera, seem to have got the message. What message? The one sent by dismayed festival-goers to Cannes last May upon discovering that out of 22 films in competition, none had been directed by a woman.

Three plays staged on penultimate day

Three plays were staged on the penultimate day (August 30) of Selim Al Deen Festival 2012, at three different venues of Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy.

Bhansali to produce film on boxing star Mary Kom

Bollywood filmmaker Sanjay Leela Bhansali never let goes an opportunity to portray strong female characters in his films.

Orsha plays a strong suit

Orsha announced her arrival in the Bangladeshi media through the Lux-Channel i talent hunt; and in a few years, carved a steady niche for herself in the arena. Paving the path to stardom with her talent, Orsha is now one of the leading Lux beauties active in the media. Orsha's talent is not confined to the field of TV dramas, but has extended to modelling and the silver screen. Although TV plays remain her strong suit, Orsha says she is always pressed for time, due to the constant pressure of her studies.

OP-ED

When police attack the people

The front page photograph printed in The Daily Star on August 29 that shows several policemen menacingly assaulting an unarmed student is without doubt a sickening sight. Many would term it as an indefensible demonstration of highhandedness. For law enforcement officials, who really want to change the colonial style of policing, this event is hugely image-shattering.

A torn democratic fabric

Assam on brink is the headline one day. Mumbai on brink is on another day. And dominating all the news is the non-functioning of parliament that the people note helplessly -- Rs.1 crore is the daily expenditure on parliament. What the scenario indicates is that the political consensus, important for a parliamentary democracy, is beyond repair. The law and order machinery has broken down and faith in peaceful methods has drastically lessened. One may as well say that the Indian polity is coming apart from the seams.

Authoritarianism in Bangladesh?

Most commentators readily accept the fact that democracy in Bangladesh is weak, even fragile. And they often hasten to add that democracy is a practice and we will get better with practice. I contend that there is no guarantee that Bangladesh will be more democratic; nor is it a forgone conclusion that Bangladesh will be less democratic.

This Day In History

September 1
462

Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle.

Literature

Noor Jehan Murshid, or a power woman

Noor Jehan, born as Noor Jehan Beg in Taranagar, Murshidabad, on 22 May 1925, rose to become a political figure committed to the empowerment of women. She was an educationist, a social reformer, a media personality and deeply liberal and secular in her world view. This owes to the influence of the liberal tradition of the Bengal Renaissance reflected in her home environment, her schooling and a consequent confidence that she had a social and a political role to play in the years to come.

Angels in search of heaven

Ever since the fall of mankind, there has been constant discrimination amongst the two sexes, male and female. Universally men have dominated and have created a society they could rein in, which is commonly referred to as the male patriarchal society. The patriarchal society has established its rights on women and has long repressed them. It has exposed women to mental torture which eventually has led to physical oppression and death. Deepa Mehta, in her film Water, portrays this concept of a male dominated patriarchal society and the repression of women from a south Asian perspective. In her film, she scrutinises the lives of Indian widows and their tragic ending.

Star Health

Managing high fever at home

Few days ago at around 1 a.m., one worried and anxious mother called me on my cell phone seeking emergency medical advice for her four year old son. Her little child suddenly developed high fever and temperature measured was 1050F. The mother did not know what to do right away at home.

The sugar blocker diet

When we consume starch and refined sugar, these foods enter the bloodstream quickly, causing a sugar spike. Our body then produces the hormone insulin to drive that sugar from your bloodstream into cells. Insulin spikes lock fat into them, so you can not use it for energy.

Clot nets help stroke recovery

Using small nets to extract blood clots from patients' brains may be the future of stroke care, according to two studies published in the Lancet medical journal.

CDC updates guidelines for treatment of gonorrhoea

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) no longer recommends cefixime as a first-line treatment for gonorrhoea. The change was based on evidence that susceptibility to the drug decreased among U.S. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates between 2006 and 2011.

If your child develops food poisoning

If your child develops a bad case of food poisoning, it can take a few days before s/he feels better. Parents may find the following tips helpful in such cases of food poisoning:

Gallstone risk higher among obese teenagers

Teenagers who are overweight or obese are much more likely to develop gallstones, compared with peers of a healthy weight, according to a study published in the Journal of Paediatric Gastro-enterology and Nutrition.

Shift work link to increased risk of heart problems

Shift workers are slightly more at risk of having a heart attack or stroke than day workers, suggests a study published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ).

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Strategic Issues

Can India revive nonalignment?

India's foreign-policy establishment is in the process of disinterring a long-dead grand strategy from its Cold War grave. “Nonalignment” the doctrine that calls upon India to refuse staunchly any strategic alliances with other actors has re-entered the broader foreign policy discourse, with the center-left championing such policies in the guise of promoting “strategic autonomy.” The credo was touted in an independent report titled Nonalignment 2.0, which offers the vision of “allying with none” as a grand strategy for India in the coming years.

Vietnam's Sino-US dilemma

In Hugh White's latest book, "The China Choice: Why America Should Share Power", the Australian professor argues that, for the sake of regional peace, the United States and China should carve up Asia between them. In particular, the US should consider ceding Indochina to China, the former defence official added.

Japan-China stand-off over Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands

The dispute between Japan and China over the barren rocky islands known as Senkaku/Diaoyu islands in the East China Sea owes its origins to the unfinished business of the Second World War. At the end of the war, the United States dispossessed Japan of most of its overseas island territories such as Taiwan, but curiously left untouched the territorial issue of some of the smaller islands. A reading of US intentions at that time would indicate that Japanese sovereignty would continue only over the four main Japanese islands, with the others being assigned to erstwhile owners. But US intentions were never given practical shape. At the end of the war, the Soviet Union marched in and captured the four northern islands in the Kuriles chain north of Hokkaido, the northern most main Japanese island. Left unclear and untouched were the Senkaku/Diaoyu group of islets that often submerge at high tide.

Star Books Review

1857 and other landmarks

The mesmerizing, poignant cover picture of Sakhawat Hussain's Jamuna-Gumtir Teerey Bhromon Kotha in so many ways captures the essence of the book: the story of India's War of Independence of 1857, which, for understandable reasons, the British prefer to call The Great Indian Mutiny. So much can be read into the picture, particularly when combined with the hindsight of history. The octogenarian last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar, supported by an attendant and walking staff, is surrendering to Captain (later Major) Hodson of the British East India Company. As a symbol of the surrender, another British officer is holding on to the Emperor's waistband and the sword bequeathed to him down the line of a succession of ancestors going back to the glory days of the Great Mughals. And what splendid and glorious personalities they were: Babar, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. After all these years, I still recall my professor at Boston University, Walter Clemens, telling the class that the height of human civilization was reached during the reign of the Great Mughals. Everything associated with the splendour of civilization had perforce had to go on a downslide, not in the sense of having become moribund, but of having become rather humdrum.

The defeated men of 1971

Khadim Hussain Raja's book on the 1971 Bangladesh war, published posthumously in Pakistan, has predictably created a stir in his country. And here in Bangladesh, a very negligible part of the book, that which deals with Tikka Khan's stated desire to have Sheikh Mujibur Rahman tried in public and hanged, was carried by the media. The impression, at that point, may well have been that Raja's book was sympathetic to the Bangladesh cause. It was anything but. Raja, a senior officer in the Pakistan army and at that point a leading figure in the military hierarchy in East Pakistan (he served in Dhaka from 1969 to early 1971), was fully in on plans for a crackdown on the Bengalis then being shaped by the Yahya Khan junta. Indeed, even as the talks between Yahya Khan, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto went on at President's House, Raja and Major General Rao Farman Ali met in the former's office to work out the details of what would later come to be known as Operation Searchlight. If anything, the work makes it clear that the civil-military bureaucracy based in West Pakistan had definitely reached the conclusion that power could not be transferred to the electorally triumphant Awami League.


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