Australia will have to produce the greatest run chase in Test history to beat South Africa in the third Test at the WACA Ground and claim the top spot in the Test rankings.
Set 632 to win after the Proteas were finally dismissed for 569 in their second innings on the back of Hashim Amla and AB de Villiers centuries, Australia were 40 without loss at stumps on the third day on Sunday.
The Australians still need a further 592 runs to win with two days to play.
David Warner will resume on Monday's fourth day on 29 with Ed Cowan not out nine.
It was only the second time in Test history Australia had been set over 600 runs to win. The previous occasion was Don Bradman's first Test against England in 1928, when they folded for 66 all out chasing 742 runs.
The current record for a successful fourth innings run chase remains 418 by the West Indies against Australia at St John's in 2003.
Tall fast bowler Morne Morkel threw a major scare in the South African camp when he appeared to roll his left ankle in his delivery stride late in the day.