Scientists have discovered that one of the brightest gamma ray bursts on record is also a supernova. It's the first direct evidence linking these two types of explosions, both triggered by the death of a massive star.
NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer satellite (HETE) initially detected the burst on March 29, 2003, in the constellation Leo. For more than 30 seconds, the burst outshone the entire universe in gamma rays.
Two hours later, the explosion's optical afterglow remained a trillion times more luminous than the Sun. Although the fireball was about two billion light-years away, it was nevertheless bright enough to be detected by small telescopes on Earth. Sky watchers in Japan, for instance, had no trouble photographing the fading afterglow using a 12" telescope at the Tokyo Institute of Technology.
Arizona, astronomers turned the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) at Mount
Hopkins toward the gamma ray burst afterglow and soon spotted the telltale
signs of a supernova. Scientists cannot yet determine which came first,
the burst or the supernova, but the same event, a star explosion, was
certainly the trigger for both.
Gamma ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe, and they likely signal the birth of black holes. Bursts occur at random locations scattered across the sky. Few last more than a minute, making them hard to study.
A supernova is the explosion of a star at least eight times as massive as the sun. When such stars deplete their nuclear fuel, they no longer have the energy to support their mass. Their cores implode, forming either a neutron star or, if there is enough mass, a black hole. The surface layers of the star blast outward, forming the colorful patterns typical of supernova remnants.
Previous observations, particularly from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, have provided convincing indirect evidence of the gamma ray burst/supernova connection. The Chandra Observatory detected iron and other heavy elements, which are formed in supernovas, in the vicinity of gamma ray bursts.
But this latest burst has provided a direct link: light from the afterglow itself exhibits the same patterns as light from a supernova. Namely, the scientists see changes in light absorbed by silicon and iron atoms, forged in the supernova, as the afterglow slowly fades away. Matheson's team is continuing to observe and analyze this unique burst.
"Scores of observatories, and even more observers, are now studying this event," said Don Kniffen, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "We've been searching for a direct link for decades, and we finally got it," he said.
gamma ray bursts may have associated supernovae
Compiled by Bonhomi
"Small is beautiful"
There are many small things in the world. God made these things. These small things join together to form larger ones.God made many small things in the world, which are really amazing. For example: In England in the countryside we can find flowers, which are very small, but they really look like shining stars. Isn't it amazing that we have our digestive, nervous, respiratory, etc system? Small parts of the body join together to make up a complete human body. If we did not have the smaller parts it would not be possible to function. Hence, God created us humans and we in turn possess many intricate that makes whole.
Small parts are usually the main parts. For example, if we were making a thing and we lose a small part the thing won't work. Imagine how a baby gets out from its mother's stomach. First, it is only small. Then it gradually grows to become a normal human being. This is yet another example of a small thing which turns into a miracle that we are.
incidents in or life have caused us to learn a
Small things are very expensive. A small solitaire diamond can be more expensive than a cluster of many diamonds. And more beautiful. People are now beginning to realise small things can be more expensive than a larger one.
Scientists are still in awe that, from a minute atom, a bomb of unthinkable power can be created. It can even annihilate a whole town or city.
I somehow appreciate the small things that God has given us. I won't realise now. Someday I'll remember how important small things are to me and everyone.
By Irfan Ahme
Miss call mania
Now a days before starting the class our teachers order us to switch off our mobiles. Because during a class at least five times we can hear different musical tones. If we are enjoying the class then its very irritating and if we are not then it's a good musical refreshment. It's also a technique to get everyone's attention. When ever any mobile rings during the class, suddenly all of us begin to search for the source of that sound. Though it's an order to switch off the mobiles as most other orders of our teachers we just ignore it and if we get caught then we just act "Oh! My God, I've forgot to switch off that nasty thing! mmmmmmmm
Yesterday morning, when we were doing our routine job (yes, gossiping. What else?) Suddenly one of my friends got a miss call. When I wanted to know who's call that was she blushed and said it was her boy friend's call and this call means he is missing her!! So, now a days miss call also talks!! It has special meanings. Lets find out what they mean. If your bf/gf gives you miss call in the morning then it means " I'm missing you." If you get the call in other times especially in the evening then it means-" I love you". Some lovers also use the miss calls to say-" come near the TNT phone coz I'm going to call you now". (These mobiles are very expensive)
Students can use this miss call for a variety of tasks as we guys do. Whenever we go to the cafeteria or away from the classroom, we request others who are staying in the class to give us miss call when teacher enters in the room. Sometimes we also use miss calls to annoy our teachers. We give them miss calls when they are taking boring classes. You can also use miss call to annoy your friends. Give them miss calls as many as possible without considering the time- day or at midnight. (I'm sure you guys do that. It's really amusing). Some days ago, one of my friends came to us for justice. He was very angry with our other friend. The story was the night before, when he was sleeping at about 2.00 AM, he got several miss calls from that friend. He thought, might be there were something wrong, so he called back him and asked him what was the matter. The reply he got was "I wanna inform you that I'm going to sleep now". Rest of the night my victim friend couldn't sleep with anger and now want justice. Tell me, what could we do? We had just given him advice to switch off the cell before going to sleep.
You guys can also play "PARLE DHORO" miss call game. The rule of this game is- you will give miss call to your friend and challenge him to pick it up if he can. If you wanna be a champion in this game, then buy a "call indicator" and stick it on your cell's antenna. You will find it in any mobile shop. It will indicate you by blinking lights at least 4 to 5 seconds before the phone rings. So you will get enough time to put your hand on your mobile's green button to turn the free miss call into a costly perfect call. Wish you good luck!!
By Meher Nigar
PARADISE. . .
"BANGLADESH" the neglected word by many civilians out there. We are mortified to own up that we were one of those asinine people who have never been reluctant to scoff at Bangladesh. We born in Bangladesh and spent 16 yrs. We always supposed Bangladesh as a object of scorn and ridicule. Our delusion would not be broken until we visited there. When we got to hear that we are going to Mymensingh , first thing that came out of our mouth was "What Mymensingh? That means a village? What made our parents go to see Mymensingh? We won't GO!"
It was 6th July 2003. We started our journey with sullen faces cause of waking up earlier just for to go the collection of nauseating places. On the way we felt very humdrum. We had nothing much to do other than sitting and moaning. Our eyes turned to see the glimpse of village. We were dumbfounded! We mean that was "BANGLADESH". All that green, away from the gray, unpleasant dusty Dhaka. The tranquil scene of vista amazed us so much. The evergreen beautiful trees enhanced the village so much that it kept our eyes clung. The water in the lake went on shimmering and reflecting the brilliant golden light of the sun. We gazed at the farmer doing their work happily away from the hustle and bustle of busy life. These village men lead their life very peacefully though they don't have their near thing they can survive by. That seemed we found the secret of their happiness. We found their assets. The main asset is their love among themselves. Though they are poor, but they are rich. Coz, they have something that is rare found in urban city.
We neither felt for Bangladesh nor showed patriotism. There is a proverb "you feel when you lose". That's what we are experiencing. we are leaving Bangladesh for good to Pakistan forever. May be this is our punishment not being in Bangladesh anymore. Now we've realized Bangladesh is not bad infect the "BEST'
Our main motive to write is we want the people to know about their country and of course never overshadow their respective country as we did. May be we were not Bangalese and that was the reason of our disloyality. One should go to village of Bangladesh at least once in their life before judging it, especially who have never been. Now we can proudly say "My Gold of Bengal, I love you.''
| Issues | The Daily Star Home|
© 2003 The Daily Star